Fornication - Wikipedia Sep 04, · This post looks at non-defining relative clauses, also known as non-restrictive relative clauses, and a couple of very similar structures: sentential relative clauses and connective or coordinate relative clauses. We use who and whom for people, and which for things. Or we can use that for people or things.. We use relative pronouns: • after a noun, to make it clear which person or thing we are talking about. Study adjective clauses (relative clauses) online. Do free exercises to practice using relative pronouns (subject & object) or download the worksheet (ESL). Sep 04, · This post looks at non-defining relative clauses, also known as non-restrictive relative clauses, and a couple of very similar structures: sentential relative clauses and connective or coordinate relative clauses. We use who and whom for people, and which for things. Or we can use that for people or things.. We use relative pronouns: • after a noun, to make it clear which person or thing we are talking about.
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In addition, various straight liquors were thought to be therapeutic for various ills - gin for the kidneys, rum as a cure for bronchitis, and Rock and Rye for the symptoms of the common cold Powers This flask would be referred to as being "swirled to the left. Thats a 1 in my book. For example, if you commit to regular exercise, that may mean you spend, say, 5 fewer hours per week with your children. This body texture feature is in the authors experience unique to case gin bottles; so much so that if a flat paneled fragment with that surface texture is found on a historic site it can be certainly attributed to being from an imported case gin bottle dating from the last half and probably last third of the 19th century to as late as the second decade of the 20th.
I read in practical English usage that we can report questions starting with (who / which / what) + be in 2 ways depending on whether they ask for a subject or complement. The relative pronoun which refers to inanimate things and to animals: The house, which we had seen only from a distance, impressed us even more as we approached. The horses which pulled the coach were bay geldings.
Do online dating websites work? It's time for a frank discussion! What I learned from interviews was that online dating is equally painful for men and for women, but for very different reasons. You shudder at a split infinitive, know when to use 'that' or 'which' and would never confuse 'less' with 'fewer' – but are these rules always right, elegant or sensible, asks linguist Steven Pinker. Definition. In contrast to defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses do not normally say anything about what particular person or thing you mean.
and, because, but, or, so, also
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A seahorse named Frito is on the mend in Florida A woman snorkeling in the Gulf of Mexico rescued a tiny seahorse that was tangled and trapped in fishing line in a pile of garbage, and now the Court rules no privacy for cellphone with passcode South Carolina's highest court has upheld an year prison sentence for burglary for a man convicted in part because he left his cellphone at the Genealogies of Mayflower passengers helps find descendants An effort to digitize the authenticated genealogies of Mayflower passengers has been completed, making it easier for people to determine if they are In test case for gig economy, UK court backs contractor A London plumber who claimed he was unfairly dismissed after years of working as a contractor has won a court ruling giving him employment rights, in One minor variation of the shoo-fly flask is the "Bell Punch Flask" which differs only in that it has a bead ring on about the middle of the neck; click Illinois Glass Company catalog page to view a illustration of this type flask left hand page, lower left corner.
A transitional style of sorts between the union oval and the shoo-fly were the Newman's patent flask. These flasks have the mostly rounded sides and oval cross section of the union oval flask, but also have the sharper taper and a somewhat more defined and flattened front and back panel similar to the shoo-fly. These flasks are embossed on the base with C.
Click Newman's patent , to view the original patent. Patent Office b; Toulouse The Newman flasks are always mouth-blown and when made in an amber pint size that dates between and about Click Bottle Closures to view more information on this type of flask. It has a tooled straight brandy finish, two air venting marks on each side, and was blown in a cup-bottom mold - all consistent with the estimated date which is based on a combination of company historical information and diagnostic features Thomas Click on the following hyperlinks to see more photos of this flask: Of interest, upon close inspection it is obvious that this flask was produced with the exact same plate that was used to make the picnic flask pictured and described in the next section.
This shows that the plates were sometimes interchangeable between molds - at least if made by the same glass company. This is not an uncommon observation with shoo-fly and picnic flasks; sometimes the same plate was even utilized between the pint and half pint sizes. The amber "pint" about 10 oz. It has an "improved" tooled brandy finish, is not air vented, and was blown in a cup-bottom mold.
It does have body crudity slightly sunken sides and somewhat rounded embossing consistent with a lack of air venting, though Thomas notes that other examples are air vented. This is fairly consistent with a mids manufacturing date, though the "improved" tooled finishes are more typical of a post manufacturing date. Thomas's narrow date range is likely also based on the rarity of these flasks implying a limited production time.
The shoo-fly flask seems to have originated in the early s but examples were made well into the 20th century, including by automatic bottle machines. Distinguishing features of the picnic flask style are: See the pictures as the shape is easier to visualize than to describe.
The small base does contribute to the flask being a bit "tipsy" though its functionality was to fit in a persons pocket or purse easily while still being able to stand up if needed. The angle of the shoulders and heel vary to some degree between different picnic flasks with some shoulders projecting from the neck less perpendicularly i.
The outside edges of the flask when viewed straight on from the front also vary from slightly flattened to gently rounded with no obvious vertical flattening; see the pictures here for subtle variations in shape.
Distinct variations of the picnic flask include the "Cummings" and "Jo Jo" or "Jo-Jo" - pictured to the left , both of which are similar to the picnic except that they are generally narrower from side to side. Click on Illinois Glass Co. The Jo Jo flask tends to have distinctly flattened front and back panels like a shoo-fly flask and seems to be a hybrid between the two styles.
The Jo Jo flasks was a popular type used by the South Carolina State Dispensary state operated liquor business during their years of operation between and Click on the following links for more views of the pint Jo Jo flask from the Dispensary: Records show that E.
Picnic flasks came in an assortment of sizes ranging from a few ounces to quart though a very large majority of those made were in the "pint" and "half pint" sizes, which typically held around 10 ozs. Early glass makers catalogs noted that the 10 oz. Be aware that a large majority of these flasks do not have embossing like the examples pictured here, though the presence of embossing greatly increases the probability of more tightly narrowing down the date range tighter with the opportunity of company related information being found in local business directories.
The color of picnic flasks is dominated by clear or colorless sometimes with a pinkish, amethyst, or faint straw tint ; aqua and shades of amber are much less common; any other color is very unusual. Click picnic colors to view an image of the array of different glass colors that are possible in this style of flask. This photo also shows the finish variety that can be found, which is relatively limited. Image courtesy of Garth Ziegenhagen.
The typical picnic finish is the double ring, though the brandy, straight brandy, bead, oil, and even internal and external screw threads were utilized on occasion.
Click pint picnic flask with continuous external screw threads to see a ca. Click screw thread close-up to see a close-up which shows that the glass under the cap does not have the slight pinkish tint that the remainder of the bottle exhibits, which has been exposed to daylight.
The colorless flask pictured in the upper left corner of this section is embossed identically to the colorless shoo-fly flask pictured in the previous section. In fact, it was produced using the exact same plate as the shoo-fly except that the plate was placed into a picnic shaped plate mold. This "pint" actually oz. It has a crudely tooled double ring finish, two air venting marks on each side, and was blown in a cup-bottom mold - all features consistent with the estimated date range which was based on a combination of company historical information and the manufacturing related diagnostic features Thomas The amber "pint" oz.
It also has a crudely tooled double ring finish, lacks air venting, and was blown in a cup-bottom mold like virtually all picnic flasks. Amber is a relatively uncommon color for picnic flasks, but was occasionally used during its popularity range late s to mid s. Click on the following links to see other view pictures of this flask: The picnic flask appears to have originated in the late s and were produced well into the 20th century, including by automatic bottle machines.
These flasks appear to have been made by at least several different American glass manufacturing companies and were possibly also produced by foreign glass makers.
Barrel flasks are listed in the earlier Illinois Glass Company catalogs but disappeared by the edition giving some idea of the termination date for the style IGCo. Machine-made examples have not been observed but are possible. The finish on these flasks - particularly the pint size - were often designed to accept a club sauce type stopper and shell cork. Only the pint and half-pint actually 12 and 6 ozs.
Colors are varied, with aqua and colorless the most common, though shades of amber, green, and even cobalt blue have been observed empirical observations. These flasks were usually blown in cup-bottom molds and are likely air vented, though the vent marks appear to be well hidden by the body design on the flasks pictured here.
The two flasks pictured above are typical of the style and most likely date from between and which was the heyday of the style. They are in the most common colors - aqua and colorless. Both have tooled finishes and were blown in a cup-bottom mold. The taller pint size flask is also embossed J. Click on the following links to see more images of the pint flask: On the reverse, superimposed over the barrel staves, is a rooster which was the symbol for the Democratic party in some Midwestern states at that time indicating that this is where these flasks were most likely produced.
The barrel flask type noted here appears to have originated in the mid to late s and were likely produced until at least the early s. Specifically based on empirical observations: Distinguishing features of the Eagle flask style are: These flasks came in a myriad of sizes from 3 ozs.
Rarely, the finish is an oil finish; other finish styles are, of course, possible but have not been observed empirical observations. This company began operation in and ended business by the end of when statewide Prohibition in Oregon was passed and took effect Thomas a.
These flasks have "improved" tooled finishes, multiple 5 air venting marks on both shoulders, and were blown in a cup-bottom mold - all consistent with a late mouth-blown production date to mid s.
These are typical shape and sizes of the Eagle flask. Click on the following hyperlinks to view more pictures of the pint flask: Eagle flasks appear to have originated in the very early s and produced until general phase-out sometime during Prohibition probably the late s. Physically, the Olympia flask is a symmetrically flattened oval in cross-section with relatively flat panels on the front and back. It also tapers noticeably from the shoulder to the heel.
Click on the illustration to see the entire page from the catalog showing this flask. A competing style variation was the "Washington" flask image to the right which is very similar to the Olympia except for relatively narrow beveled panels on each side of the flattened front panel instead of rounded edges like the Olympia; a Washington flask is pictured to the right below.
The name "Washington" was apparently coined by John Thomas in his book " Whiskey Bottles and Liquor Containers from the State of Washington " since this style was popular in Washington between about and , when statewide Prohibition took effect Thomas b. The maker or makers of these type flasks are unknown, but may well have been a West Coast glassmaker. All of these type flasks have tooled or improved tooled finishes, are multiple air vented at the shoulder and usually other locations, and were blown in cup-bottom molds.
Finishes are often the brandy or straight brandy, though the IGCo. The pair of half-pint ozs. Olympia flasks pictured to the left above are both embossed identifying their origin as the "Log Cabin" saloon in Baker City, OR.
Both flasks are half-pints that were blown in a cup-bottom plate mold as noted in the IGCo. According to the historical record business directories Hoff operated his Baker City saloon from until Oregon's statewide Prohibition in with the flasks dating between and when Baker City was officially name changed to just Baker Thomas a.
Olympia flasks image courtesy of Garth Ziegenhagen. It dates from or as the Union Avenue Exchange saloon was only in business for a couple years under the proprietorship of Henry Hergert Thomas a. This particular flask has an "improved" tooled brandy finish, multiple air venting marks including on the base, and was blown in a cup-bottom mold - all consistent with a manufacturing date of the s.
Click on the following links to view additional pictures of this flask: Washington flask - This is an example of a larger "pint" 12 to 14 oz. It dates during the era of popularity for these flasks just before Prohibition, i. Photo courtesy of Garth Ziegenhagen.
The Olympia and Washington type flasks originated in the very late s or early s and were popular up until National Prohibition. They are also observed with the I. Click on the Olympia illustration above to view this latter mark as shown in the IGCo.
Machine-made versions of at least the Olympia flasks exist, and like the other machine-made flasks noted on this page, would date from the mid to late s into at least the early s. It appears, however, that this general style of flask did not last long after National Prohibition was implemented in as they are not listed in glassmaker catalogs after the early s IGCo. The finishes on Baltimore Oval flasks are typically a tooled or "improved" tooled brandy or straight brandy type, though mouth-blown versions do frequently come with external screw-threads like the flask pictured below.
These flasks also always seem to have air venting marks - often many in various places - and were blown in a cup-bottom mold; all features consistent with an early 20th century manufacture. Just what a "family liquor store" meant may seem strange to us these days drinking children?
It was not an uncommon designation during the early 20th century and likely was an attempt to put a more humane face on liquor sales during those volatile days of rising prohibitionist fervor. In fact, if you run a search on the internet now one will turn up a lot of "family liquor stores" still in existence. These flasks have improved tooled finishes, multiple air venting marks on both shoulders and along the mould seams, and were blown in a cup-bottom mold; all consistent with the business dates for James Gully from to Thomas a.
Click on the following links to view more images of the pint size: It has a molded, continuous, external screw thread with some tooling to the finish above the threads; it does not have a ground rim.
This is very late mouth-blown bottle that dates from between and when National Prohibition was essentially implemented, as it is maker marked on the base "M" in a circle indicating probable manufacture by the Maryland Glass Co.
Click on the following links for more images of this flask: The Baltimore style flasks appear to have originated in the very late s or early s and were popular up until sometime during National Prohibition.
However, like with most flasks, Baltimore Oval flasks without proprietary embossing greatly out number those with embossing. Machines began to dominate production by the mid to late s and mouth-blown Baltimore Oval flasks began to disappear about this time. Machine-made Baltimore Oval type flasks were made in to the s then seem to largely be replaced by the Dandy next flask and other more modern styles.
Like with the mouth-blown versions, the most common machine-made sizes continued to be the pint and half pint various glassmakers catalogs, empirical observations. Later machine-made examples s and later are dominated by external screw threads, though corks are still occasionally seen in modern versions of these flasks. Mouth-blown examples of these flasks appear to all have been blown in a cup-bottom mold and are usually copiously air vented, reflecting the mouth-blown technology of the early s.
This flask has an "improved" tooled finish, multiple air venting marks including on the base, and was blown in a cup-bottom mold - all consistent with a manufacturing date during the first couple decades of the 20th century. Given the Anti-Saloon League and related Christian Women's Temperance Union induced anti-alcohol fervor during this time period it is not unlikely that many of the customers were or were soon to become bachelors!
For more information on the Anti-Saloon League, which was a significant force in the American social and political world during the early s, click on the following link: On occasion, Dandy flasks were produced with a finish that accepts an inside thread stopper. This flask has an "improved" tooled finish, multiple air venting marks including on the base, and was blown in a cup-bottom mold - again all consistent with a manufacturing date during the couple decades of the 20th century.
In fact, it is highly dateable bottles like this and the previous one that provide the support for the diagnostic features based date ranges found on this website. The picture to the left is of an "early" machine-made Dandy flask that has the label, box, and original contents. It is actually dated on the paper cork seal as being bottled during the "Fall of " with additional labeling on the reverse noting that it is for "Medicinal Purposes Only" reflecting the implementation of the Volstead Act on June 30th, making it illegal to sell spirits purely as a beverage.
This notation on the shoulder or sometimes lower sides of Dandy flasks - machine-made and mouth-blown - is very common. This statement was required to be embossed on all liquor bottles sold in the U.
Based on the makers marking on base, this machine-made liquor flask was manufactured in by the Owens-Illinois Glass Company. Click to base view to view an image of this bottles base showing the distinct suction scar made by the Owens Automatic Bottle Machine.
Click shoulder, neck, and finish view for a close-up image showing the very modern looking continuous external thread finish with the lower ring portion of the cap still remaining. This type of flask is still being made today. The Dandy flask appears to have originated in the s, achieved popularity in the very early s, and produced through Prohibition to the present day. This section may be expanded in the future as time allows Chestnut flasks are typically oval to a flattened oval in cross-section with an overall squatty "teardrop" shape when viewed straight on.
These flasks are free-blown typically with glass tipped or blow-pipe pontil scars. Because they are free-blown, the actual shapes are quite variable with some approaching round in cross-section to very compressed and "flask-like" on the other end of the scale. Typically the body of these flasks are about 1. Finishes are applied and quite crude, varying much in shape and often defying simple categorization.
Colors vary somewhat with a large majority being some shade of olive green or olive amber; aqua to amber to teal blue have also been noted empirical observations. These flasks are usually very crudely formed with bubbles and ripples in the glass, flattened spots and bulges, and an overall lack of symmetry reflecting the free-blown manufacturing and early American heritage.
They usually have very light and thin glass for their size, though this is variable. The chestnut flask pictured above is a typical early American example that was most likely produced by a New England glasshouse between and s - the heyday for this style. It is free-blown, has a blowpipe type pontil scar within a pushed up base, a crudely applied one-part finish, and is medium olive green in color.
Click on the following links to view more pictures of this chestnut flask: All of these free-blown flasks share the same early manufacturing characteristics as the example pictured above and show some of the subtle range of glass colors that these bottles were made in.
Chestnut flasks, as noted, primarily date between about and the s. They would be common finds on some of the older historic sites in the East and parts of the Midwest, but would be largely non-existent in the far West with the possibility of some deposition lag occurrence.
Be aware that during the era of popularity for these type flasks that much or most cheap utilitarian ware was free-blown or dip molded and shapes are quite variable. Thus, the shape or type dividing line between chestnut flasks and similar free-blown bottles and flasks is vague though similar items made using similar processes generally share similar dating ranges. Benedictine bottles are very distinctive in shape with a long sloping neck and flaring shoulder which abruptly ends at the top of the body which then tapers inwards gradually towards the base; see the picture to the left.
The base is usually variably pushed-up and domed, sometimes deeply. Sizes are most commonly the pictured "quart" size and a smaller "pint" size which has the same conformation, just proportionally smaller.
Most mouth-blown versions are three-piece mold, though two-piece molds have also been noted empirical observations. The finish on Benedictine bottles are somewhat unique and could be basically described as a two-part finish with an outwardly tapering top to bottom upper part with a flaring rounded ring lower part.
The collars usually but not always have distinct indentations or grooves on both sides to facilitate the wiring down of the cork closure.
The glass is typically very heavy and virtually always in some shade of olive green or - in older versions pres - olive amber. The majority do have a distinctive crescent embossed on one shoulder, opposite the embossing if the bottle is embossed. The example pictured above is a quart size dating from from around to It is a medium olive green in color with very heavy glass, a kick-up domed base, produced in a three-piece mold with a separate base plate, and has a true applied finish.
Click on the following links for more view photos of this bottle: These bottles were often usually? Click on the following link to view the Benedictine bottles offered by the Illinois Glass Company in Whether the listed bottles were a domestic product made by IGCo. Photos courtesy of Deb Bankes. This bottle is very similar - if not identical - to the bottles the product comes in today; click on the following commercial Benedictine liqueur website link for more information: Benedictine style bottles can date from the s to the present.
Since they were apparently usually made overseas and exported, the manufacturing based diagnostic features do not necessarily follow those noted on this website for U. Most notably, these bottles were made with true applied finishes into the early 20th century and mouth-blown Benedictine bottles appear to have been made up until at least empirical observations.
Mouth-blown bottles seem to date from the s or before, with machine-made items dating from that time or after. This general shape was and is also used generically for various other liqueurs in the 20th century Lucas Co.
The smaller liqueur bottle to the right is a later production - late s to early s - and most likely of European manufacture. It has a small "D" shaped handled and was blown in a two-piece cup-bottom mold. It also has a handmade silver collar that totally covers the finish.
This example is still sealed with some of the partially evaporated contents still inside. This one has an applied glass handle which is also covered by sterling silver.
This bottle has an applied champagne finish a transition ridge where the applied finish glass is attached to the cracked-off neck can be felt inside the bore , was blown in a two-piece cup-bottom mold, and has no evidence of mold air venting.
Being European in origin, the dating trends noted on this website do not work well with this bottle or its olive green sister above. The general shape and design of these latter two bottles was a relatively common late 19th century s to early s type. The large majority of these type bottles found in the U. These bottles also pretty much mark the end of handled mouth-blown liquor bottles. During the 20th century a wide array of machine-made bottles were made with molded - not applied - handles, the handle being incorporated into the bottle mold as an inherent part of the design.
This includes wine, bleach, and other types of bottles including spirits. Click machine-made handled jug to view a close-up picture of a handled wine jug that was manufactured in based on the Owens Illinois Company makers mark on the base. These type machine-made handled bottles have molded handles with mold seams running the entire length of the handle on the inside and outside edges pointed out in the picture.
Click HERE to view a picture of the entire bottle. Handles on machine-made spirits bottles are relatively common on bottles made throughout the 20th century and are still observed today on large capacity wine bottles i.
It does, however, cover the primary styles that were most commonly used and encountered within an archaeological context.
This page has also somewhat emphasized mouth-blown bottles since that subject is of more familiarity to the author of this website than later 20th century, machine-made items. However, though the automated bottle production era also had incredible variety, it was not as diverse as the mouth-blown era since shape standardization and simplification was typical of machine manufacturing.
Also, bottle body embossing became much less frequent on machine-made bottles and a significant amount of the diversity of the mouth-blown production era was the different proprietary embossing on essentially the same shapes of bottles. Figured Flasks Figured flasks is a generic name for the large class of liquor flasks primarily produced between and Decorative flasks The decorative group of flasks is a category of "pictorial" flasks made up of four primary types: Masonic flasks The flask pictured to the right is one of a relatively large and varied group of figured flasks that feature the somewhat variable Masonic motifs of the Freemasons, a potent political and social force during the first half of the 19th century.
The earliest liquor bottles manufactured during the time span covered by this webpage tended to be shaped like the bottles pictured here with a wide, moderate height body, and a moderate length neck. Compared to the next few cylinder liquor bottle types, these would be called "squatty" in conformation.
These bottles tended towards olive green, olive amber, and black glass in color. To view an example of an earlier - early to midth century - liquor bottle click on Belgian type liquor bottle.
The linked bottle likely dates between and and is Dutch or Belgian in origin; this is a shape that was likely never actually manufactured in the U. These earlier round but non-cylindrical shaped bottles were displaced beginning about for various reasons including the cylinder shape being more conducive to storing and stacking and the increasing use of the "dip mold" for forming bottles; a mold type which could not be used for the earlier shapes Jones Transitional from the earlier squattier type bottles above to the taller narrower cylinder "fifth" shapes shown below are bottles generally shaped like that pictured to the left.
These types show the stylistic trend towards taller more graceful less "squatty" forms in the mid s. Although similar shaped American made spirits bottles can date occasionally from the late 18th century, they really began to dominate by the s and s. These shapes gave way to variations of the standard "fifth" bottle in popularity in the U.
Earlier bottles from the s or before, like the pictured black glass version, have applied mineral finishes, were made in three-piece or dip molds, and may be pontil scarred. Bottles produced after about to usually have tooled finishes and in colors other than black glass i.
Bottles produced after about are machine-made with those made from the s on increasingly with external screw cap finishes, though cork finishes are still seen occasionally to the present empirical observations. Machine-made bottles with the embossing " Federal Law Forbids Sale or Re-use of this Bottle " were made between and the late s. Tall, moderately slender bodied, straight neck early "Patent" style spirits cylinders midth century: During the s the bulged neck, cylinder bottle noted above "evolved" closer to a general shape that continues in popularity to this day though with different finishes and manufacturing methods of course.
This style is represented by the bottle pictured to the left which has a neck of similar moderate length as the previous style, but which is straight sided instead of bulging. The straight sided neck usually has a bit of a taper inwards from the base of the neck to the base of the finish. The body length is typical of the bulged neck cylinder above in that it is relatively tall and moderately slender. By the early s the "Patent" style tall cylinder had generally evolved a slightly longer neck at many glass works, including the new glass companies on the West Coast.
The finishes on these type bottles were dominated by the brandy and straight brandy types with the mineral finish being rarely seen on cylinder liquor bottles after about The base of these bottles do not usually have the Rickett's type base characteristics, though can be somewhat similar at times.
The typical shape and size of these was slightly more graceful in appearance due to the bottle being about the same diameter around 3" but a bit taller overall than the earlier "Patent" style, primarily because of the neck length. These differences are, however, subtle and variable. Bottles dating from the s through the s will usually have an applied brandy finish and have been blown in a post-bottom molds.
Dominant colors during this period are shades of amber and olive amber, with the occasional colorless bottle and rarely pure olive green or aqua. For an example of one of the earliest ca.
Cutter Old Bourbon of this style click on the following links: Bottles made after about have almost exclusively tooled brandy and straight brandy finishes with mouth-blown ones being made up until National Prohibition which began after These bottles were also almost always blown in a cup-bottom mold.
Mouth blown quart size cylinders in this shape tend to primarily date no earlier than the late s with most being post to National Prohibition.
The quart size was popular with consumers and was most likely driven by the proliferation of mail-order liquor dealers that usually used quart sized bottles. Mail order liquor became very popular as the number of states passing statewide alcohol prohibition laws making them "dry" states increased in the early s making the mail the only way to acquire "legal" liquor. This law is still in effect to various degrees.
Turn-mold examples of this style appear to date from the late s or early s to s with the earlier examples having applied finishes up until the mids and are usually some shade of amber or red amber empirical observations. Liquor bottles with inside screw thread finishes date primarily between and about or so and are always mouth-blown we are just waiting for someone to point out an exception to this "always".
Colors are dominated by colorless and shades of amber. See the Bottle Closures page for earlier "Eastern" exceptions to this dating for inside thread bottles. From the s on, external screw threads increasingly dominated though cork closures are still seen on occasion.
Bottles with the embossing " Federal Law Forbids Sale or Re-use of this Bottle " were made between and the s. Decorative shoulder spirits cylinders: Some variations have additional decoration on the lower body near the base; others have the decorative molding just on the neck itself.
Squat cylinder spirits bottles later: Another fairly popular shape for spirits bottles was like that pictured to the left which was called a "squat brandy" in some glassmakers catalogs, though it was likely used for an array of different liquor types including brandy, bourbon, and rye whiskey Illinois Glass Co.
Some earlier examples have been noted with a mineral finish Tibbetts This shape seems to have evolved from the early 19th century squat bottles discussed first in this section, possibly appearing in the s and surely by the s, though its popularity was mostly in the early 20th century.
This distinctive shaped liquor bottle style was strongly associated with malt whiskey, i. Malt whiskey was widely claimed by the purveyors to be of high medicinal value, i.
The body of this bottle style is proportionally quite tall with a diameter of approximately 3" the diameter of the pictured example and a very short to almost non-existent neck with the height of the finish typically being as tall or taller than the neck; see the image to the left. Most of these bottles also have a molded ring or bead "annular collar" or opposing lugs like the pictured example at the base of the neck which was apparently purely for styling reasons.
Tall, straight neck spirits cylinders early 20th century: This shape is very similar to the tall, cylinder liquor bottles covered above but have a slightly shorter neck and a less abrupt shoulder i. It is a shape that was common during the first three decades of the 20th century and is most common in the "fifth" and quart sizes.
Tall Modern Cylinder liquor midth century: The bottle pictured here represents a large time leap from the bottles pictured above. It is typical of the look of liquor bottles produced during the mid to late 20th century, though there was extensive variety to the general shapes and embossing of which this example is a representative sample. This shape is similar to the ones covered above except for a somewhat shorter neck and of course the modern type external screw thread finish.
Some of the earliest liquor bottles were like the one pictured to the left which is square in cross section and generally designed to contain gin though undoubtedly contained various types of liquor and possibly wine. Commonly called "case gin" or "taper gin" bottles since they would pack more efficiently to a case 6 to 24 bottles than round bottles Illinois Glass Company Case gin bottles are square with a more or less distinct taper inwards from the shoulder to the base or a flaring from the base to the shoulder if you prefer.
The neck is very short to almost non-existent with the finishes varying from a laid-on ring, flared, mineral finish, oil, and even a blob. However, some case gin type bottles were made in the U. Tall Square Short-necked Spirits bottles: Once two-piece full sized molds came into common use in the early 19th century, the "case gin" shape above evolved but of course did not disappear into vertically straight sided multi-purpose bottles like that pictured to the left.
Mr Feest QC told a jury: His body had been deposited there some time after his death. Police inquiries led to a flat in St George, the court heard. It is claimed the accused men and the deceased were involved in a drug network.
It seems he was punished by being stabbed to death in the St George flat and dumped by Cullen in Siston, Mr Feest said. For 20 months women were living in fear of a horrific sex attacker stalking the Bristol Downs in search of victims.
The campaign of terror started in when women, aged between 18 and 33, reported gruesome attacks around the Clifton and Durdham Downs. The series of shocking events left widespread terror of the man who became known as the Clifton Rapist. Ronald Evans preyed upon women in the Clifton, Redland and Westbury Park areas and forced them into performing sex acts in darkened doorways or alleys and some even reported being raped. The fear was so high that women began carrying personal alarms and torch-lit demonstrations were held as police frantically began their search for the sex attacker.
A honeytrap plan was hatched by the police, under the operation code-named Argus, to catch the man with sadistic desires and it was launched in January For 11 weeks, 11 brave policewomen, including rookie officer Michelle Leonard, and even four policemen dressed in drag, acted as bait to try and snare the sex beast, under the watchful eyes of other officers.
And in March 23, the plan paid off. PC Leonard — then Tighe - was sent a warning over the radio: Five minutes later she was pounced on and grabbed around the neck by the man. She managed to scream into her radio and her colleagues — including Detective Andy Kerslake — came to her rescue and snare the man they had wanted for months. Ronald Evans — then aged 38 — had been freed on licence from Leyhill Open Prison in after serving nearly 11 years of a life sentence for the brutal murder of Mansfield shop assistant Kathleen Heathcote, 21, in the s.
Two young men jailed for life for their part in the murder of a year-old Bristol father failed to win cuts in their jail terms. Mark Starr and Michael Hodge, both 21, were told by judges that their 20 and year minimum sentences for the murder of Shaun Godfrey in December were not a day too long.
Their co-defendant, Nathan Sargent, was also convicted of murder following a trial at Bristol Crown Court and was jailed for a minimum of 24 years. A fourth man, Jason Williams, who suffers from a learning disability, was sent to a medium security hospital indefinitely after the jury made a finding of manslaughter. Starr, Hodge and Williams arrived at the pub, and an altercation broke out between them and Mr Godfrey in the toilet.
Hodge began to threaten Mr Godfrey, the court heard, and Mr Godfrey was asked to leave the pub sometime after 11pm. Mr Godfrey was on his way home when he was approached by Sargent, who has holding the rifle.
Starr, Hodge and Williams were also nearby, lying in wait. Although Sargent obtained and fired the gun, the judge could see no reason to distinguish between him and Hodge as regards their minimum terms.
Hodge had 11 previous convictions for 41 offences, including dishonesty, violence and assault with intent to rob. Dismissing the applications, Lord Justice Baker said: City of Bristol College student Mr Robinson was murdered on the stairwell of his home in Ron Jones House hostel on Jamaica Street, in the city, in March , after an alleged deal to buy a gun went wrong.
His co-defendant Rowell Grant, 20, of Linton Road, Wakefield, denied the firearm charge and was acquitted by the jury. Judge Graham Cottle told Barnes: His death was a senseless act. He was only 19 years of age and had his whole life ahead of him. Detective Chief Inspector Andy Bevan, who lead the investigation, said: We know incidents like this can cause a great deal of concern and anxiety. Evans, formerly of Pill, Townsend, of Cardiff, and Fuge, formerly of Clarendon Road, Weston, were convicted of murder and jailed for life.
But at the time of their trial in November , Jones was deemed unfit to be tried due to his mental state. The jury in that trial found alcoholic Jones had played an active part in the killing. This month a trial started to decide whether Jones should be convicted of murder or manslaughter on the grounds of diminished responsibility.
Imposing sentence, in which Jones must serve a minimum of 14 years, Mr Justice Davis told him he had tried to lie to the police about his involvement, but was jointly involved with his co-defendants. It broke and you carried on using it as a vicious weapon in a sustained and violent assault.
Paul Dunkels, prosecuting, said: Video Loading Video Unavailable. Click to play Tap to play. The video will start in 8 Cancel Play now. Read More Becky Watts murder. Read More Bristol's most shocking crimes. Subscribe to our Daily newsletter Enter email Subscribe.
ESL Lesson Plans, Tests, & Ideas - Relative dating sentencesChildren are well adjusted when the are safe and physical and emotional needs are meet your time is better spent on that rather than justifying your entitlement to date and fiful your own needs or perhaps insecurities. U remarried because of your relative physical and financial reason and so on. You sound like a damn crybaby. My dating profile is quite lengthy and is intended to share who I am as a human being in hopes of sentences someone that has done similar work. I am ten years old dating my mum is putting me second and its ruining our relationship. I varied between questions, jokes, statements, compliments. Relative Dating - Example 1
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Vijay, who is the relative of Balram's childhood, manages to sentences the grinding poverty of dating village. One guy talked about his ex the whole time and then told me he planned to take me to his family reunion for the second date to meet his family. My answer will likely seem off topic and possibly confusing. Definition.
In contrast to defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses do not normally say anything about what particular person or thing you mean. If you want dating advice you can take on the go, be sure to check out and if you enjoy them, please don't forget to give a review on Amazon and Goodreads..
And thanks, I . It has the original label indicating that it was used for brandy. Play a game of Kahoot! here. Kahoot! is a free game-based learning platform that makes it fun to learn – any subject, in any language, on any device, for all ages!
American men seek to marry Thai Women dailycoupons.proch shows growth of Thai Dating Sites and Thai Personals on the internet as American men marry Thai Women. One Thai bride talks about her relationship. Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other. When one of the partners to consensual sexual intercourse is a married person, it may be described as adultery. Their crimes are as shocking as their sentences are long.
It is the earliest attested Semitic language. Akkadian was named after the city of Akkada major centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire c. The mutual influence between Sumerian and Akkadian had led scholars to describe the relative as a sprachbund. Hundreds of thousands of texts and text fragments have been excavated to date, covering a vast textual tradition of mythological narrative, legal texts, scientific works, correspondence, political and military events, and many other examples.
By the second millennium BC, two variant forms of the language were in use in Assyria and Babylonia, known as Assyrian and Babylonian respectively. For centuries, Akkadian was the native language in Mesopotamian nations such as Sentences and Relative. By the Hellenistic periodthe language was largely confined to scholars and priests working in temples in Assyria and Babylonia.
The last known Akkadian cuneiform document dates from the 1st century AD. Neo-Mandaic spoken by the Mandeans of Iraq and Iran and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic spoken by the Assyrian people relative northern Iraqsoutheast Turkeynortheast Syria and northwest Iranare two of the few modern Semitic languages that contain some Akkadian vocabulary and grammatical features.
Akkadian and its dating Aramaic however are only ever attested in Mesopotamia and the Near East. This group distinguishes itself from the Northwest and South Semitic languages by its subject—object—verbwhile the other Semitic languages usually have either a verb—subject—object or subject—verb—object order. This novel word order is due to the influence of the Sumerian substratum, which has an SOV order. The origin of the Akkadian spatial prepositions is unknown. In contrast to most other Semitic languages, Akkadian has only one non-sibilant fricative: Akkadian lost both the glottal and pharyngeal fricatives, which are characteristic of the other Semitic languages.
Until the Old Babylonian sentences, the Akkadian sibilants were exclusively affricated. Old Akkadian is preserved on clay tablets dating back to c. It was written using cuneiforma script adopted relative the Sumerians relative wedge-shaped symbols pressed in wet clay. As employed by Akkadian scribes, the adapted cuneiform script could represent either a Sumerian logograms i.
However, in Akkadian the script practically became a fully fledged syllabic scriptand the original logographic nature of cuneiform became secondary, though logograms for frequent words such as 'god' and 'temple' continued to be used. For this reason, the sign AN can sentences the one dating be a logogram for the word ilum 'god' and on the other signify the god Anu or even the syllable -an.
Additionally, this sign was used as a determinative for divine names. Another peculiarity of Akkadian cuneiform is that many signs do not have a well-defined phonetic value. Both of these are often used sentences the same syllable in the same text. Cuneiform was in many ways unsuited to Akkadian: In addition, cuneiform was a syllabary writing system—i. Akkadian is divided into several varieties based on geography and historical period: One of sentences earliest known Akkadian inscriptions was found on a bowl at Uraddressed to the very early pre-Sargonic king Meskiagnunna of Ur c.
The Relative Empireestablished by Sargon of Akkadintroduced the Akkadian language the "language of Akkad " as a written language, adapting Sumerian cuneiform orthography for the purpose. During the Middle Bronze Age Old Assyrian and Old Babylonian periodthe language virtually displaced Sumerian, which is assumed to have been extinct as a living language by the 18th century BC. Old Akkadian, which was used until the end of the 3rd millennium BC, differs from both Babylonian and Assyrian, and was displaced by these dialects.
By the 21st century BC Babylonian and Assyrian, which were to become the primary dialects, were relative distinguishable. Old Babylonian, along with the closely related dialect Marioticis clearly more innovative than the Old Assyrian dialect and the more distantly related Eblaite language.
For this reason, forms like lu-prus 'I will decide' are first encountered in Old Babylonian instead of the dating la-prus even though it was archaic compared to Akkadian. On the other hand, Assyrian developed certain innovations as well, such as the "Assyrian vowel harmony" which is not comparable to that found in Turkish or Finnish. Eblaite is even more archaic, retaining a productive dual and a relative pronoun declined in case, number and gender. Both of these had already disappeared in Old Akkadian.
Old Babylonian was the language of king Hammurabi and his codewhich is one of the oldest collections of laws in the world. The division is marked by the Kassite invasion of Babylonia around BC. The Kassites, who reigned for years, gave up their dating language in favor of Akkadian, but they had little influence relative the language. At its dating, Middle Babylonian was the written language of diplomacy of the entire ancient Orient, including Egypt. During this period, a large number of loan words were included in the language from North West Semitic languages and Hurrian ; however, the use of relative words was confined to the fringes of the Akkadian speaking territory.
Under the AchaemenidsAramaic continued to prosper, but Assyrian continued its decline. The language's final demise came about during the Hellenistic period relative it was further marginalized relative Koine Greekeven though Neo-Assyrian cuneiform remained in use in literary tradition well into Parthian relative. The latest known text in cuneiform Babylonian is an astronomical text dated to 75 AD. Old Assyrian developed as well during the second millennium BC, but because it was a purely popular language — kings wrote in Babylonian — few long texts are preserved.
From BC onwards, the language is termed Middle Assyrian. During the first millennium BC, Akkadian progressively lost its status as a lingua franca. In the dating, from around BC, Akkadian and Aramaic were of equal status, as can sentences seen in the number of copied texts: From this period on, one speaks of Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian.
Sentences received an upswing in popularity in the 10th century BC when the Assyrian kingdom sentences a major power with the Neo-Assyrian Empirebut texts written 'exclusively' in Neo-Assyrian dating within 10 years of Nineveh 's destruction in BC. After the end of the Mesopotamian kingdoms, which fell due to the Persian conquest of the area, Akkadian which existed solely in the form of Relative Babylonian disappeared as a popular language.
However, the language was still used in its written form; and even after the Greek invasion under Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, Akkadian was still a contender as a written language, but spoken Akkadian was likely extinct by this time, or at least rarely used. The latest positively identified Akkadian text sentences from the 1st century AD.
The Akkadian language began to be rediscovered when Carsten Niebuhr in was able to make extensive copies of cuneiform texts and published them in Denmark. The deciphering of the texts started immediately, and bilinguals, in particular Old Persian -Akkadian bilinguals, were of great help. Since the texts contained several royal names, isolated signs could be identified, and were presented in by Georg Friedrich Grotefend. By this time it was already evident that Akkadian was a Semitic language, and the final breakthrough in sentences the language came from Edward HincksHenry Rawlinson and Jules Oppert in the middle of the 19th century.
The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago recently completed a 21 volume dictionary of the Akkadian language, which is available commercially and online. Some researchers such as W. Sommerfeld believe that the Old Akkadian variant used in the older texts is not an ancestor of the later Assyrian and Babylonian dialects, but rather a separate dialect that was replaced by these two dialects and sentences died out early.
Eblaiteformerly thought of as yet another Akkadian dialect, is now generally considered a relative East Semitic language. Because Akkadian as a spoken language is extinct and no contemporary descriptions of the pronunciation are known, little can be 9 biggest dating text fails with certainty about the phonetics and phonology of Akkadian.
Some conclusions can be made, however, due to the relationship to the other Semitic languages and variant spellings of Akkadian words. The following table gives the consonant sounds how text messages change from dating to marriage in the Akkadian use of cuneiform, with the presumed pronunciation in IPA transcription according to Huehnergard and Woods, relative which most closely corresponds to recent reconstructions of Proto-Semitic phonology.
The parenthesised symbol following is dating transcription used in the literature, in the cases where that symbol is different from dating phonetic sentences. Akkadian emphatic consonants are typically reconstructed as ejectiveswhich are thought to be the oldest realization of emphatics across the Semitic languages. Other interpretations are possible, however.
Several Proto-Semitic phonemes are lost in Akkadian. All consonants and vowels appear in long and short forms. The stress patterns of Akkadian are disputed, with some authors claiming that nothing is known of the topic. There are however certain points of reference, such as the rule of vowel syncope see the next paragraphrelative some forms in the cuneiform that might represent the stressing of certain vowels; however, attempts at identifying a rule for stress have so far been unsuccessful.
In his syllable typology there are three syllable weights: If the last sentences is superheavy, it is stressed, otherwise the rightmost sentences syllable dating stressed. If a word contains only light syllables, the first syllable is stressed. A rule of Akkadian phonology is that certain short and probably unstressed vowels are dropped. The rule is that the last vowel of a succession of syllables that end in a short vowel is dropped, for example the declinational root of the verbal adjective of a root PRS is PaRiS.
Additionally there is a general tendency of syncope of short vowels in the later stages of Akkadian. Most roots of the Akkadian language consist of three consonants called the radicalsbut some roots are composed of four consonants so-called quadriradicals.
The radicals are occasionally represented in transcription in upper-case letters, for example PRS to decide. Between and around these radicals various datingdating and prefixeshaving word dating or grammatical functions, are inserted. The resulting consonant-vowel pattern differentiates the original meaning of the root. Also, the middle radical can be geminated, which is represented by a doubled consonant sentences transcription and sometimes in the cuneiform writing itself. Formally, Akkadian has three numbers singular, dual and plural and three cases nominativeaccusative and genitive.
However, even in the earlier stages of the language, the dual number is vestigial, and its use is largely confined to natural pairs eyes, ears, etc. In the dual and plural, sentences accusative and genitive are merged into a single oblique case. Akkadian, unlike Arabicbut like Hebrewhas only "sound" plurals formed by means of a plural ending i. As is clear from the dating table, the adjective and noun endings differ only in the masculine plural. Certain nouns, primarily those referring to geography, can also form a locative ending in -um in the singular and the resulting forms serve as adverbials.
These forms are generally not productive, but in the Neo-Babylonian the um -locative replaces several constructions with the preposition ina. In the later stages of Akkadian the mimation word-final -m - along with nunation dual final "-n" - that occurs at the end of most case endings has disappeared, except in the locative. Later, the nominative and accusative singular of masculine nouns collapse to -u and in Neo-Babylonian dating word-final short vowels are dropped.
As a result, case differentiation disappeared from all forms except masculine plural nouns. However many texts continued the practice of writing the case endings although often sporadically and incorrectly. As the most important contact language throughout this period was Aramaicwhich itself lacks case distinctions, it is possible that Akkadian's loss of cases was an areal as well as relative phenomenon.
As is also the case in other Semitic languages, Akkadian nouns may appear in a variety of "states" depending on their grammatical function in a sentence. The basic form of the noun is the status rectus the governed statewhich is dating form as described above, complete dating case endings. In addition to this, Akkadian has the status absolutus the absolute state and sentences status constructus Construct state. The latter is found in all other Semitic languages, while the former appears only in Akkadian and some dialects of Aramaic..
Finally Jesus gave his disciples two choices in Mt. Descriptivists describe how language actually is used. Consider what we've done so far. You are missing the point.
Old Akkadian is preserved on clay tablets dating back to c. BC. It was written using cuneiform, a script adopted from the Sumerians using . I’m going to tell you something that you already know: dating is a frustrating process of trial and error.I sit down, think of witty things to write to guys, and I get nothing back.
For a lot of people, it’s a seemingly never-ending dance of missed connections, nights you’ll never get back again and wondering just what’s wrong with you and why everybody else seems to have it so much [ ].
He comes to the village, impregnates all young women and goes away. Bottle Typing/Diagnostic Shapes: "Liquor/Spirits Bottles" page Organization & Structure. This page is divided somewhat arbitrarily into four primary categories, plus a fifth catch-all "other" category, as follows. Do online dating websites work? It's time for a frank discussion! What I learned from interviews was that online dating is equally painful for men and for women, but for very different reasons. You shudder at a split infinitive, know when to use 'that' or 'which' and would never confuse 'less' with 'fewer' – but are these rules always right, elegant or sensible, asks linguist Steven Pinker.
I meet most men that I date online. It's very common for guys with kids to write in their dailycoupons.pro profiles: 'My kids come first,' or 'My daughter is the center of my world!'.